Install Synology Drive Client on Solus Linux

The current 3rth party repo is deprecated so I’ve created my own fork for version: 2.0.4-11112

sudo eopkg bi --ignore-safety https://raw.githubusercontent.com/L0g0ff/3rd-party/master/network/download/synology-drive-client/pspec.xml
sudo eopkg it synology-drive-client*.eopkg;sudo rm synology-drive-client*.eopkg

Have fun!

504 Gateway Timeout on Synology NAS

Looks familiar?

I want to move this blog to my own NAS because I have plenty enough bandwidth and with Cloudflare as reverse proxy it is secure enough also (and I like to hobby off course 😉 ).

I tried to use the Duplicator WordPress plugin to make a dump of my website and do a restore in the Synology Webstation. But during the database restore in step 2 every time I was getting a 504 gateway timeout after a minute (exactly 60 seconds).

What I could have done was a manual (ftp & database) copy and restore the files. But I was sure I was getting other errors in the future when I had to update WordPress or other plugins. So fixing this timeout issue was the only solution.

On different places on the internet, I found that I had change the Nginx site settings. So I put the timeout settings in the associated “/etc/nginx/conf.d/site.conf” and restart Nginx and restore the database Nginx was still was failing.

    proxy_connect_timeout 600s;
    proxy_send_timeout 600s;
    proxy_read_timeout 600s;
    send_timeout 600s;

Then I’ll try to put these lines in the “/etc/nginx/nginx.conf” but when I restart the nginx the settings were overwritten and my changes are gone.

Every time you restart, Nginx Synology make use of a file “/usr/syno/share/nginx/nginx.mustache” to create a new nginx.conf file. I change the lines in that file and *boom* everything was working 🙂

So TLDR;

sudo su -
vim /usr/syno/share/nginx/nginx.mustache

#add these lines
    send_timeout                  600s;
    proxy_connect_timeout         600s;
    proxy_send_timeout            600s;
    proxy_read_timeout            600s;

synoservice --restart nginx

If you want to see the current Nginx config

nginx -T 

Have fun 🙂

Create Azure Linux VM with worpress pre-installed

This is my first completed automated Linux Azure VM deployment. I like to share it with you.

There are 3 parts

  1. Create a keygen for ssh
  2. Powershell script
  3. Bash script

First start powershell and create a keypair with passphase

ssh-keygen -m PEM -t rsa -b 4096

Then place the bash script somewhere on your local computer

#! /bin/bash
apt-get update
apt-get install -y wordpress php libapache2-mod-php mysql-server php-mysql

echo "Alias /blog /usr/share/wordpress" >>/etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf
echo "<Directory /usr/share/wordpress>" >>/etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf
echo "    Options FollowSymLinks" >>/etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf
echo "    AllowOverride Limit Options FileInfo" >>/etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf
echo "    DirectoryIndex index.php" >>/etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf
echo "    Order allow,deny" >>/etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf
echo "    Allow from all" >>/etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf
echo "</Directory>" >>/etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf
echo "<Directory /usr/share/wordpress/wp-content>" >>/etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf
echo "    Options FollowSymLinks" >>/etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf
echo "    Order allow,deny" >>/etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf
echo "    Allow from all" >>/etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf
echo "</Directory>" >>/etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf

a2ensite wordpress
a2enmod rewrite 
reload apache2 
service apache2 reload
systemctl restart apache2

mysql -e "CREATE DATABASE wordpress;"
mysql -e "CREATE USER [email protected] IDENTIFIED BY '[email protected]';"
mysql -e "GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP,ALTER ON wordpress.* TO [email protected];"
mysql -e "FLUSH PRIVILEGES;"

echo "<?php" >>/etc/wordpress/config-localhost.php
echo "define('DB_NAME', 'wordpress');">>/etc/wordpress/config-localhost.php
echo "define('DB_USER', 'wordpress');">>/etc/wordpress/config-localhost.php
echo "define('DB_PASSWORD', '[email protected]');">>/etc/wordpress/config-localhost.php
echo "define('DB_HOST', 'localhost');">>/etc/wordpress/config-localhost.php
echo "define('DB_COLLATE', 'utf8_general_ci');">>/etc/wordpress/config-localhost.php
echo "define('WP_CONTENT_DIR', '/usr/share/wordpress/wp-content');">>/etc/wordpress/config-localhost.php
echo "?>">>/etc/wordpress/config-localhost.php

service mysql start


publicip=$(dig +short myip.opendns.com @resolver1.opendns.com) && mv /etc/wordpress/config-localhost.php /etc/wordpress/config-$publicip.php

Then put the code in the Powershell ISE, change some variables and kickoff the script.

The things you may need to change:

  • script.sh location

New-AzResourceGroup -Name lxautodeploy -Location westeurope

# Create a subnet configuration
$subnetConfig = New-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig `
  -Name "mySubnet" `
  -AddressPrefix 192.168.1.0/24

# Create a virtual network
$vnet = New-AzVirtualNetwork `
  -ResourceGroupName "lxautodeploy" `
  -Location "westeurope" `
  -Name "myVNET" `
  -AddressPrefix 192.168.0.0/16 `
  -Subnet $subnetConfig

# Create a public IP address and specify a DNS name
$pip = New-AzPublicIpAddress `
  -ResourceGroupName "lxautodeploy" `
  -Location "westeurope" `
  -AllocationMethod Static `
  -IdleTimeoutInMinutes 4 `
  -Name "mypublicdns$(Get-Random)"


# Create an inbound network security group rule for port 22
$nsgRuleSSH = New-AzNetworkSecurityRuleConfig `
  -Name "myNetworkSecurityGroupRuleSSH"  `
  -Protocol "Tcp" `
  -Direction "Inbound" `
  -Priority 1000 `
  -SourceAddressPrefix * `
  -SourcePortRange * `
  -DestinationAddressPrefix * `
  -DestinationPortRange 22 `
  -Access "Allow"

# Create an inbound network security group rule for port 80
$nsgRuleWeb = New-AzNetworkSecurityRuleConfig `
  -Name "myNetworkSecurityGroupRuleWWW"  `
  -Protocol "Tcp" `
  -Direction "Inbound" `
  -Priority 1001 `
  -SourceAddressPrefix * `
  -SourcePortRange * `
  -DestinationAddressPrefix * `
  -DestinationPortRange 80 `
  -Access "Allow"

# Create a network security group
$nsg = New-AzNetworkSecurityGroup `
  -ResourceGroupName "lxautodeploy" `
  -Location "westeurope" `
  -Name "myNetworkSecurityGroup" `
  -SecurityRules $nsgRuleSSH,$nsgRuleWeb

  # Create a virtual network card and associate with public IP address and NSG
$nic = New-AzNetworkInterface `
  -Name "myNic" `
  -ResourceGroupName "lxautodeploy" `
  -Location "westeurope" `
  -SubnetId $vnet.Subnets[0].Id `
  -PublicIpAddressId $pip.Id `
  -NetworkSecurityGroupId $nsg.Id

  # Define a credential object
$securePassword = ConvertTo-SecureString ' ' -AsPlainText -Force
$cred = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential ("azureuser", $securePassword)

# Create a virtual machine configuration
$vmConfig = New-AzVMConfig `
  -VMName "myLXVM" `
  -VMSize "Standard_D2s_v3" | `
Set-AzVMOperatingSystem `
  -Linux `
  -ComputerName "myLXVM" `
  -Credential $cred `
  -DisablePasswordAuthentication | `
Set-AzVMSourceImage `
  -PublisherName "Canonical" `
  -Offer "UbuntuServer" `
  -Skus "18.04-LTS" `
  -Version "latest" | `
Add-AzVMNetworkInterface `
  -Id $nic.Id

# Configure the SSH key
$sshPublicKey = cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
Add-AzVMSshPublicKey `
  -VM $vmconfig `
  -KeyData $sshPublicKey `
  -Path "/home/azureuser/.ssh/authorized_keys"

New-AzVM `
  -ResourceGroupName "lxautodeploy" `
  -Location westeurope -VM $vmConfig

Get-AzPublicIpAddress -ResourceGroupName "lxautodeploy" | Select "IpAddress"



Invoke-AzVMRunCommand -ResourceGroupName "lxautodeploy" -Name 'myLXVM' -CommandId 'RunShellScript' -ScriptPath "script.sh" -Verbose

Now you can go to http://<publicip>/blog to access the new blog

You can access the server with ssh [email protected]<publicip>

Have fun with it!

Install Pihole on Synology with docker

Unfortunately, there isn’t a pihole addon in the Synology package center. But you can build your pihole in a docker container instead 🙂

The reason you must use docker-compose instead of the Synology docker package itself is that you want to bridge net NIC of your Synology and place the pihole direct in your network. You cannot do this with the GUI.

The steps:

  • Install docker with the package center
  • Activate SSH
  • Download de image pihole/pihole:latest
  • Login with ssh
  • type vi docker-compose.yaml
  • Paste the content from the docker-compose.yaml example into the vi
  • Change the IP adressen to your own network
  • Type :wr to save the file
  • Type :q to quit vi
  • Type “sudo docker-compose up”
  • Have fun!

Docker-compose.yaml Example

# Note: 192.168.123.xxx is an example network, you must update all these to match your own.

version: '2'

services:
  pihole:
    container_name: pihole
    image: pihole/pihole:latest
    hostname: pihole
    domainname: localhost             # <-- Update
    mac_address: d0:ca:ab:cd:ef:01
    cap_add:
      - NET_ADMIN
    networks:
      pihole_network:
        ipv4_address: 192.168.123.199   # <-- Update
    dns:
      - 127.0.0.1
      - 1.1.1.1
    ports:
      - 443/tcp
      - 53/tcp
      - 53/udp
      - 67/udp
      - 80/tcp
    environment:
      ServerIP: 192.168.123.199                 # <-- Update (match ipv4_address)
      VIRTUAL_HOST: pihole.localhost            # <-- Update (match hostname + domainname)
      WEBPASSWORD: "justarondompassword"        # <-- Add password (if required)
    restart: unless-stopped

networks:
  pihole_network:
    driver: macvlan
    driver_opts:
      parent: ovs_eth0
    ipam:
      config:
        - subnet: 192.168.123.0/24            # <-- Update
          gateway: 192.168.123.1              # <-- Update
          ip_range: 192.168.123.192/28        # <-- Update

When you want to update the docker container, all you have to do is:

sudo docker-compose down

and

sudo docker-compose up

A good article I used to figure everything out is: http://tonylawrence.com/posts/unix/synology/free-your-synology-ports/

Ubuntu Linux cannot ping FQDN

Because this is the fifth time I fixed this issue I write a blog about it…

Microsoft uses .local as the recommended root of internal domains, and serves them via unicast dns. Linux uses .local as the root of multicast dns. If you’re stuck on a broken MS network like this, reconfigure your linux multicast DNS to use a different domain like .alocal.

To do this, add a domain-name=.alocal line to the [server] section of /etc/avahi/avahi-daemon.conf, then restart avahi-daemon: sudo service avahi-daemon restart.

[server]
domain-name=.alocal

You may need to flush the DNS, mDNS and resolver cache, as well as restart your web browsers to clear their internal cache.

Source: http://www.lowlevelmanager.com/2011/09/fix-linux-dns-issues-with-local.html

Convert PFX to PEM and upload the certificate to Plesk

Export the Private Key:

# openssl pkcs12 -in filename.pfx -nocerts -out key.pem

Remove the password from the SSL certificate (unencrypted is needed for plesk):

# openssl rsa -in key.pem -out server.key

Export the certificate:

# openssl pkcs12 -in filename.pfx -clcerts -nokeys -out cert.pem

Now upload the certificate:

ssl-thawte

And bind the certificate in your hosting settings:

SSL-PII

Clone HP ThinState Capture USB stick (or any other USB disk)

The ThinState USB disk is split into 2 partitions. And the second partition isn’t accessible in Windows so it was very hard to build a stick from scratch. There are a lot of Windows USB clone tools but because I had to clone the ThinState 16GB to a 8GB stick also, it was impossible to do it from my windows workstation. But when some things get more difficulty what do you do? Use Linux 🙂

The Easy way (same USB stick size or bigger):

$sudo dd if=/dev/sdb of=/dev/sdc bs=512

The “Hard” way (clone to smaller USB):

First resize the partitions with gparted to the minimum size. Then find out the last sector of the /dev/sdb2 (where sdb2 is my USB stick)

$sudo fdisk -u -l /dev/sdb

Output:

Disk /dev/sdb: 14,9 GiB, 16026435584 bytes, 31301632 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes

Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes Disklabel type: dos Disk identifier: 0x6a60ab98

Device     Boot   Start     End Sectors Size Id Type
/dev/sdb1 *       2048 2099199 2097152   1G b W95 FAT32
/dev/sdb2       2099200 14131199 12032000 5,8G 7 HPFS/NTFS/exFAT

Now use dd with sector 12032000 + 1.

dd if=/dev/sdb of=/home/myusername/usbimage.img count=12032001

and write the *.img file back to your new USB stick:

dd if=/home/myusername/usbimage.img of=/dev/sdb

Install chrome with Arch Linux

In Windows I like Firefox more than chrome because everything is already “Google”. But Google chrome has a nice stable and fast flash plugin built-in and so I need a chrome browser in Linux…. Because I’m testing Arch Linux (Antergos actually ) and Google don’t have arch packages I found a way to install it automatically for me with the AUR repository. $yaourt -S google-chrome More info about the yaourt (Yet AnOther User Repository Tool):

Using yaourt

You can install packages (including AUR packages) with

$ yaourt packagename

or

$ yaourt -Sa packagename

You can update your system including AUR packages with:

$ yaourt -Syua