Boot Linux (live) Distro from USB

There are alot of Live Linux dstributions. There is an very easy way to run a live distro from USB. Check:

Distributions with Built-in Support

UNetbootin has built-in support for downloading and installing the following distributions:

Migrate my Joomla 1.0.15 to 1.5.x

Yes, I know… My Joomla site is very old. In this article I will write down all my migration steps. The best practise is to create a development environment. I download and install a Debian 5.0 (lenny) OS and installed all the common LAMP, SSH, Samba, PHPMyadmin & ImageMagick  packages. Then:

  1. I Copy the content of my site to my development environment
  2. Edit the joomla configuration.php file and change my physical paths
  3. Upload my database
  4. Check all my joomla modules
  5. set 777 permisions for easy testing 😉
  6. I know from earlier testing that mine Joomla template is not compatible with 1.5. So I download and install Artisteer 2 to create a new template. This software works so easy I created the template with my girlfriend 😉 (download torrent)
  7. My Biggest concern is the community builder component and the forum. This are the most important modules so I will upgrade them first.
  8. Backup administrator/components/com_comprofiler/ue_config.php, remove the CB module and reinstall the latest versions. (note: latest CB have 1.5.10 native support)
  9. My Fireboard version is aleady to the latest version (1.0.5 RC2) 😀
  10. Now I will install the migrator tools and follow the 5 migration steps @
  11. I have installed the migrator and the fireboard ETL’s. After that I create A SQL Dump. Now I must create a new 1.5 install and import everything.
  12. Note: You can now download your SQL dump file and upload it into your Joomla! 1.5 installation to continue the process. Don’t forget to select migration and use the prefix ‘jos_’ (this migrator rewrites your prefix to jos_ even if the sites prefix is different).
  13. I found a small community builder howto @
  14. * Step 1: Export the Community Builder database tables from 1.0
    * Step 2: Download administrator / components / com_profiler / ue_config.php
    * Step 3: Install CB on the 1.5 site:
    * Step 4: Delete the CBt database tables on 1.5 and import the old tables from 1.0
    * Step 5: Upload the old ue_config.php to administrator / components / com_profiler / ue_config.php
  15. For expose I can install the latest version. The copy the ../components/com_expose/expose/img and xml folders to the new site. That as very easy 🙂
  16. For the CB Profile pictures I copy images/comprofiler to the new site.
  17. .. to be continued

Template fix:

Extensions > Module manager > Top Menu (or any other menu, e.g. Main Menu) > click to Edit this module > select Position = user3. Save the configuration and go to the frontpage. You should see your Artisteer style applied to the menu items.

And first assign another default template and then your template

Speed up your firefox

How longer you use firefox how slower the automatic search will be. There is a plugin thats defragment the search database.

Quote Vacuum Places Improved 1:

Defragments your Firefox “Places” database (history/bookmarks)
This greatly reduces the lag while typing in the address bar and the start-up time.
This extension features configurable automatic cleaning, periodic reminder, and internationalization.


NTP Troubleshooting

Download and Install The NTP Package

Most RedHat and Fedora Linux software products are available in the RPM format. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard. If you need a refresher, Chapter 6, “Installing Linux Software“, has all the details.

When searching for the file, remember that the NTP RPM’s filename usually starts with the word ntp followed by a version number as in ntp-4.1.2-5.i386.rpm.

The /etc/ntp.conf File

The /etc/ntp.conf file is the main configuration file for Linux NTP in which you place the IP addresses of the stratum 1 and stratum 2 servers you want to use. Here are the steps to create a configuration file using a pair of sample Internet-based NTP servers:

1) First we specify the servers you’re interested in:

server    # A stratum 1 server at
server       # A stratum 2 server at

2) Restrict the type of access you allow these servers. In this example the servers are not allowed to modify the run-time configuration or query your Linux NTP server.

restrict   mask nomodify notrap noquery
restrict      mask nomodify notrap noquery

The mask statement is really a subnet mask limiting access to the single IP address of the remote NTP servers.

3) If this server is also going to provide time for other computers, such as PCs, other Linux servers and networking devices, then you’ll have to define the networks from which this server will accept NTP synchronization requests. You do so with a modified restrict statement removing the noquery keyword to allow the network to query your NTP server. The syntax is:

restrict mask nomodify notrap

In this case the mask statement has been expanded to include all 255 possible IP addresses on the local network.

4) We also want to make sure that localhost (the universal IP address used to refer to a Linux server itself) has full access without any restricting keywords:


5) Save the file and restart NTP for these settings to take effect. You can now configure other Linux hosts on your network to synchronize with this new master NTP server in a similar fashion.

How To Get NTP Started

You have to restart the NTP process every time you make a change to the configuration file for the changes to take effect on the running process.

To get NTP configured to start at boot, use the line:

[[email protected] tmp]# chkconfig ntpd on

To start, stop and restart NTP after booting, follow these examples:

[[email protected] tmp]# service ntpd start
[[email protected] tmp]# service ntpd stop
[[email protected] tmp]# service ntpd restart

Testing And Troubleshooting NTP

After configuring and starting NTP, you should test it to make sure it is working. Here are some guidelines you can follow to get NTP working correctly.

Verifying NTP is Running

To test whether the NTP process is running use the command

[[email protected] tmp]# pgrep ntpd

You should get a response of plain old process ID numbers.

Doing An Initial Synchronization

If the time on the local server is very different from that of its primary time server your NTP daemon will eventually terminate itself leaving an error message in the /var/log/messages file. You should run the ntpdate -u command to force your server to become instantly synchronized with its NTP servers before starting the NTP daemon for the first time. The ntpdate command doesn’t run continuously in the background, you will still have to run the ntpd daemon to get continuous NTP updates.

Take a look at some sample output of the ntpdate command in which a server whose initial time was set to midnight, was correctly set to 8:03 am.

  • The date was originally set to midnight which was verified by using the date command.
[[email protected] tmp]# date
Thu Aug 12 00:00:00 PDT 2004
[[email protected] tmp]#
  • The ntpdate command is run three times to synchronize smallfry’s clock to server, but it must be run while the ntpd process is stopped. So you’ll have to stop ntpd, run ntpdate and then start ntpd again.
[[email protected] tmp]# service ntpd stop
[[email protected] tmp]# ntpdate -u
Looking for host and service ntp
host found :
12 Aug 08:03:38 ntpdate[2472]: step time server offset 28993.084943 sec
[[email protected] tmp]# ntpdate -u
Looking for host and service ntp
host found :
12 Aug 08:03:40 ntpdate[2472]: step time server offset 2.467652 sec
[[email protected] tmp]# ntpdate -u
Looking for host and service ntp
host found :
12 Aug 08:03:42 ntpdate[2472]: step time server offset 0.084943 sec
[[email protected] tmp]# service ntpd start
[[email protected] tmp]#
  • The date is now corrected.
[[email protected] tmp]# date
Thu Aug 12 08:03:45 PDT 2004
[[email protected] tmp]#

Determining If NTP Is Synchronized Properly

Use the ntpq command to see the servers with which you are synchronized. It provided you with a list of configured time servers and the delay, offset and jitter that your server is experiencing with them. For correct synchronization, the delay and offset values should be non-zero and the jitter value should be under 100.

[[email protected] tmp]# ntpq -p

Here is some sample output of the command:

     remote          refid       st t when poll reach  delay   offset   jitter
==============================================================================   gandalf.sigmaso  3 u   95 1024  377  31.681  -18.549    1.572
milo.mcs.anl.go  ntp0.mcs.anl.go  2 u  818 1024  125  41.993  -15.264    1.392  2 u  972 1024  377  38.206   19.589   28.028
-dr-zaius.cs.wis  2 u  502 1024  357  55.098    3.979    0.333
+taylor.cs.wisc.  2 u  454 1024  347  54.127    3.379    0.047
-ntp0.cis.strath  3 u  507 1024  377 115.274   -5.025    1.642
*   .GPS.            1 u  426 1024  377 107.424   -3.018    2.534
ntp1.conectiv.c         16 u    - 1024    0   0.000    0.000  4000.00

Your Linux NTP clients cannot Synchronize Properly

A telltale sign that you haven’t got proper synchronization is when all the remote servers have jitter, delay and reach values of 0. In some older versions of Fedora, the jitter values will be 4000.

    remote           refid      st t when poll reach   delay   offset  jitter
LOCAL(0)        LOCAL(0)        10 l    -   64    7    0.000    0.000   0.008
ntp-cup.externa         16 u    -   64    0    0.000    0.000   0.000
snvl-smtp1.trim         16 u    -   64    0    0.000    0.000   0.000         16 u    -   64    0    0.000    0.000   0.000

This could be caused by the following:

  • Older versions of the NTP package that don’t work correctly if you use the DNS name for the NTP servers. In these cases you will want to use the actual IP addresses instead.
  • A firewall blocking access to your Stratum 1 and 2 NTP servers. This could be located on one of the networks between the NTP server and its time source, or firewall software such as iptables could be running on the server itself.
  • The notrust nomodify notrap keywords are present in the restrict statement for the NTP client. In some versions of the Fedora Core 2’s implementation of NTP, clients will not be able to synchronize with a Fedora Core 2 time server unless the notrust nomodify notrap keywords are removed from the NTP client’s restrict statement.
In this example the restrict statement has only the client network defined without any keywords and the configuration line that works with other NTP versions has been commented out:
# -- CLIENT NETWORK -------
#restrict mask notrust nomodify notrap
restrict mask